Seismic prospecting is fundamentally based on the study of the speed of P and S waves, from which the characteristics of the geological formations under study are defined. The value of Vp and Vs will indicate their status, geological contacts, fault zones or fractures, as well as excavable, ripable, marginal or non-ripable levels.
Electrical prospecting is a technique based on the measurement of soil resistivity. To do this, by means of a determined electrode device, current is injected into the ground and the potential difference is measured. From the resistivity values obtained, the model of the terrain structure is generated, differentiating layers or geological formations, tectonic accidents, water table, contaminated areas, anthropic elements, etc.
Natural field methods are those that measure the effects that are generated due to the variation in the composition of materials from the measurement of non-induced parameters, such as spontaneous potential (variations in electrical properties), gravimetry ( variations in density) or magnetometry (variations in the magnetic field).
The geophysical logging of boreholes allows obtaining great information on different properties of the terrain depending on the measurement probe used (sonic velocities Vp and Vs, resistivity, water flow characteristics, structural and stress analysis of the rock mass, clay content, quality of water, etc.), from which to perfectly characterize the conditions of the geological formations under study.